Saturday, August 22, 2020

Cash Flows in Relation to The Investment Proposal

Question: Incomes in Relation to The Investment Proposal. Answer: Harry Hill is thinking about supplanting an old machine with another one. The incomes comparable to the venture proposition are introduced underneath: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Investment funds $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 Loss of existing deals ($10,000) ($10,000) ($10,000) ($10,000) ($10,000) Deterioration ($54,000) ($54,000) ($54,000) ($54,000) ($54,000) Benefit before charge $16,000 $16,000 $16,000 $16,000 $16,000 Expense @ 30% $4,800 $4,800 $4,800 $4,800 $4,800 Benefit after expense $11,200 $11,200 $11,200 $11,200 $11,200 income from activities $65,200 $65,200 $65,200 $65,200 $65,200 Introductory venture - $2,42,000 Terminal incomes $70,000 Net income from activities - $2,42,000 $65,200 $65,200 $65,200 $65,200 $1,35,200 Cost of capital @ 10% 1 0.909 0.826 0.751 0.683 0.621 Present estimation of incomes - $2,42,000 $59,267 $53,855 $48,965 $44,532 $83,959 Working Notes: Introductory Investment Cost of Machine $3,20,000 Increment in working capital $27,000 after expense continues from offer of old machine $1,05,000 Introductory Investment $2,42,000 After Tax continues from old Machine Unique expense $2,80,000 yearly deterioration $28,000 Current book esteem $1,40,000 Continues from deal $90,000 Misfortune on special $50,000 Assessment on misfortune on special $15,000 Continues from deal after assessment $1,05,000 Devaluation on new machine Cost of machine $3,20,000 Incentive after devaluation $50,000 Depreciable sum $2,70,000 Devaluation $54,000 Terminal Cash Flow Offer of machine $40,000 Current book esteem $50,000 Misfortune on special $10,000 Assessment on misfortune $3,000 after assessment continues from deal $43,000 Return of working capital $27,000 Terminal income $70,000 The NPV of the undertaking = Sum of limited income starting speculation = 290578 242000 = $48578 Since the NPV is sure, henceforth the organization ought to proceed with the proposition of buying the new machine. A positive NPV implies the advantages from the task is more than the expense of the undertaking.

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Dig Into These Delicious Books About 90s Scandals

Dig Into These Delicious Books About 90s Scandals The 90s were a glorious time to be alive!  We had Daria, we had JNCO jeans, we had Delia*s catalogs . . . and we had scandals galore. This was pre-24 hour news cycles so while it felt exciting and chaotic at the time, most of these narratives would today be reduced to a brief chyron at the bottom of your screen. Without access to non-stop news channels and websites overanalyzing each additional piece of information, we were at the mercy of tabloids and the 6 oclock news. Today, each of these scandals inevitably wouldve birthed a podcast series. But it was the 90s, so were left with books! Here is a round up of books about some of the most salacious stories from the decade that gave us Clearly Canadian and Beavis and Butthead. Tonya Harding Women On Ice: Feminist Responses to the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan Spectacle by Cynthia Baughman This study offers a critique of the media soap opera which unfolded after the attack on Nancy Kerrigan at the 1994 US Figure Skating Championships, with contributions by feminist academics, journalists and critics who were intrigued with the depiction of this event in the media and society. The essays included explore a number of issues raised by the Harding/Kerrigan scandal: the roles women are meant to uphold in public (and that public women are meant to play in private), the prices extracted for violations of notions of femininity, fantasies about social class and upward mobility, and the ways in which the media reaffirm gender and cultural stereotypes. Fire on Ice: The Exclusive Inside Story of Tonya Harding by Abby Haight and J.E. Vader Here is a young woman whose fierce ambition was, in the end, her downfall. Her story is a tale of sacrifice and overcoming obstacles, of the strength of competition and the blindness of ambition. In the thin ice over which Tonya Harding always glided, we could not help but see an American story, and all of America was watching. Nancy Kerrigan: In My Own Words by Nancy Kerrigan and Steve Woodward Olympic medalist Nancy Kerrigan is one of the most recognizable and admired athletes of our time. In her own voice, Kerrigan tells a truly fascinating storyher childhood determination to be the best at her sport, the continued support of her family, revelations involving her skating techniques, the Detroit attack that left her injured and propelled her into the media spotlight, and the difficulties of her new-found fame. The Tonya Tapes by Linda Prouse and Tonya Harding Based on the candid and sometimes startling conversations that YOU were never meant to hear, THE TONYA TAPES, written by award-winning author Lynda D. Prouse, chronicles the life of the worlds most infamous female athlete TONYA HARDING revealing for the first time the whole truth of her difficult and amazing life on and off the ice. Based on actual, extensive interviews with Tonya Harding, and written with her collaboration, this is her story! Lorena Bobbitt Forever Scarred: The Unauthorized John Wayne Bobbitt Story by Christopher Mark Kudela Finally, after over twenty years the truth has been told in this gripping tell all book. Complete with signed confessional statements, the events that led to the most infamous non-death case in American criminal history are told in horrific detail. You knew he did it and now hes admitted it. All of the disgusting perversion, the sinister mind games, the grotesque physical abuse, and most of all lets not forget the rape its all inside. If you like twisted then prepare to be wound up tighter with each passing page. YOU WONT BELIEVE ALL THAT HE DID. Rodney King and the L.A. Riots The Riot Within: My Journey from Rebellion to Redemption by Rodney King and Lawrence J. Spagnola While Rodney King is now an icon, he is by no means an angel. King has had run-ins with the law and continues a lifelong struggle with alcohol addiction. But King refuses to be bitter about the crippling emotional and physical damage that was inflicted upon him that night in 1991. While this nation has made strides during those twenty years to heal, so has Rodney King, and his inspiring story can teach us all lessons about forgiveness, redemption, and renewal, both as individuals and as a nation. Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD by Lou Cannon In the Spring of 1992 five days of rioting laid waste to South Central Los Angeles, took scores of lives, cost the city more than 900 million in property damages and captured the attention of horrified people worldwide. Lou Cannon, veteran journalist, combines extensive research with interviews from hundreds of survivors, offering the only definitive story behind what happened and why.Official Negligence  takes a hard look at the circumstances leading up to the riots. Cannon reveals how the videotape of the brutal beating of Rodney King had been sensationally edited by a local TV station, how political leaders required LAPD officers to carry metal batons despite evidence linking them to the rising toll of serious injury in the community, and how poorly prepared the city was for the violence that erupted. Twilight : Los Angeles, 1992 by Anna Deavere Smith Anna Deavere Smiths stunning new work of documentary theater in which she uses verbatim the words of people who experienced the Los Angeles riots to expose and explore the devastating human impact of that event. Never Again: A Never Before Told Insight into the 1992 Los Angeles Riots by Bill C. Weiss Never Again is based on a true account of the most violent and destructive civil disturbance in the United States in the last century. It is a never before told insight into the hours leading up to, during, and after the Los Angeles Riots erupted on April 29, 1992. The story deals with the emergent preparations and tough decisions a Watch Commander faced while preparing Lennox Sheriff s Station to intervene, as the Los Angeles Police Department found itself totally unprepared to handle this deadly and dynamic crisis. Never Again shows, detail by detail, how close the Sheriffs Department was to potentially changing the course of history as the Watch Commander copes with his internal instinct to take action, waged against his self-discipline to follow orders, leading up to the final moment when he is ready to put his daring plan into action. The Menendez Brothers Bad Blood: The Shocking True Story Behind the Menendez Killings by Don Davis In wrenching testimony, Lyle Erik accused their father of sexually brutalizing then since they were childrenâ€"claiming his sadistic acts of perversion and cruel violence drove them to their unspeakable crime. Bestselling author Don Davis takes you inside one of the most riveting cases in California’s history, laying to bare the shattering secrets of a tormented family. The Menendez Murders: The Shocking Inside Story of the Menendez Family an the Killings that Stunned the Nation by Robert Rand Journalist Robert Rand, who originally reported on the case for the  Miami Herald, has followed the Menendez murders from the beginning and has continued investigating and interviewing important sources for twenty-seven years. With unprecedented access to the Menendez family and its history, including direct communication with Lyle, Rand has uncovered extraordinary details that certainly would have changed the fate of the brothers’ first-degree murder conviction and sentencing to life without parole. Blood Brothers: The Inside Story of the Menendez Murders by Ron Soble and John H. Johnson Discusses the murders of a rich L.A. businessman and his wife by their two sons, who used a defense of child abuse to obtain a mistrial. Truth and Lies in Beverly Hills by David Kennedy Before there was a trial for O.J. Simpson, Jodi Arias, or Amanda Knox, there was Erik and Lyle Menendez. It was the first trial that was televised and America couldnt get enough. They wanted all the gory details of the murders and as far as the public were concerned, the juicer the better. Hung Jury: the Diary of a Menendez Juror by Hazel Thornton On June 28, 1993 Hazel Thornton showed up for jury selection. She spent the next seven months as a juror on a high-profile murder trial: The People versus Erik Menendez. Erik and his brother Lyle were on trial for shot-gunning their parents to death in their Beverly Hills home. In this book, she describes the day-to-day experiences of a juror. O.J. Simpson I Did It: Confessions of the Killer by O.J. Simpson O.J. Simpson told how he  hypotheticallywould have committed the murders. In response to public outrage that Simpson stood to profit from these crimes, HarperCollins canceled the book. A Florida bankruptcy court awarded the rights to the Goldmans in August 2007 to partially satisfy the unpaid civil judgment, which has risen to over $38 million with interest. The Goldman family views this book as his confession and has worked hard to ensure that the public will read this book and learn the truth. The Run of His Life: The People v. O.J. Simpson by Jeffrey Toobin A behind-the-scenes look at the crime of the century and the legal proceedings that followed sheds new light in the arrest and trial of O.J. Simpson, the evidence in the case, and the role of the prosecution and defense Outrage: The Five Reasons Why O.J. Simpson Got Away with Murder by Vincent Bugliosi Here is the account of the O. J. Simpson case that no one dared to write, that no one else could write. In this #1  New York Timesbestseller, Vincent Bugliosi, the famed prosecutor of Charles Manson and author of  Helter Skelter, goes to the heart of the trial that divided the country and made a mockery of justice. He lays out the mountains of evidence; rebuts the defense; offers a thrilling summation; condemns the monumental blunders of the judge, the Dream Team, and the media; and exposes, for the first time anywhere, the shocking incompetence of the prosecution. Without a Doubt by Marcia Clark Without a Doubt is not just a book about a trial. Its a book about a woman. Marcia Clark takes us inside her head and her heart. Her voice is raw, incisive, disarming, unmistakable. Her story is both sweeping and deeply personal. How did she do it, day after day? What was it like, orchestrating the most controversial case of her career in the face of the medias relentless klieg lights? How did she fight her personal battles those of a working mother balancing a crushing workload and a painful, very public divorce? When did she know that her case was lost? Who stood by her, and who abandoned her? And how did she cope with the outcome? As Clark shares the secrets of her own life, we understand for the first time why she identified so strongly with Nicole, in a way no man ever could. No one is spared in this unflinching account least of all Clark herself, who candidly admits what she wishes shed done differently and, for the first time, we understand why the outcome was inevitable. O.J. Is Innocent and I Can Prove It: The Shocking Truth about the Murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ron Goldman by William C. Dear Nicole Simpson and Ron Goldman were brutally murdered at Nicole’s home on Bundy Drive in Brentwood, California, on the night of June 12, 1994. The weeks and months that followed were full of spectacle, including a much-watched car chase and the eventual arrest of O. J. Simpson for the murders. The televised trial that followed was unlike any that the nation had ever seen The Affair of Bill Clinton and Monica The Starr Report: The Findings of Indepedent Counsel Kenneth W. Starr on President Clinton and the Lewinsky Affair by The Washington Post and Kenneth W. Starr Monicas Story by Andrew Morton Monica Lewinsky. You know her name, you know her face, and you think you know her story: the pretty young intern who began an illicit affair with the President of the United States a liaison that ignited an unprecedented political scandal and found Bill Clinton as the second U.S. president to ever be impeached. But there is much more to the Monica Lewinsky story than just that. Now, Andrew Morton, author of the #1  New York Times  bestseller,  Diana: Her True Story, takes you beyond the headlines and the sound bites to discover the real Monica Lewinsky, a woman as interesting, intelligent, and misunderstood as they come. One Scandalous Story: Clinton, Lewinsky, and Thirteen Days That Tarnished American Journalism by Marvin Kalb In 1963 Marvin Kalb observed the Secret Service escorting an attractive woman into a hotel for what was most likely a rendezvous with President Kennedy. Kalb, then a news correspondent for CBS, didnt consider the incident newsworthy. Thirty-five years later, Kalb watched in dismay as the press dove headfirst into the scandal of President Clintons affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky, disclosing every prurient detail. How and why had the journalistic landscape shifted so dramatically? One Scandalous Story seeks to answer this critical question through the inside story of thirteen days January 13-25, 1998 that make up a vital chapter in the history of American journalism. In riveting detail, Kalb examines just how the media covered the Lewinsky scandal, offering what he calls an X-ray of the Washington press corps. American Rhapsody by Joe Eszterhas If the Watergate scandal was a previous generations National Nightmare, then maybe the Clinton scandal was our National Wet Dream, and who better to narrate it than the screenwriter Joe Eszterhas?   In  American Rhapsody, Eszterhas, whose credits include  Basic Instinct  and  Showgirls,  and  Charlie Simpsons Apocalypse,  for which he was nominated for a National Book Award, takes us through the events that threatened to topple a president and left most of the nations citizens with, at the very least, a bad taste in their mouths. The Death of Princess Di Death of a Princess: The Truth Story Behind Dianas Tragic End by Tom Sancton and Scott Macleod Finally the ultimate investigation and full story of what really happened and why, by the two Time magazine Paris-based correspondents who have covered the case from the beginningWith privileged access to hundreds of pages of documents and scores of interviews with witnesses, experts and investigators, Thomas Sancton and Scott MacLeod reveal the truth behind the events that occurred during the early morning hours of August 31, 1997. Princess Diana: The Hidden Evidence by Jon King and John Beveridge Two British investigative journalists present significant new evidence on the death of Princess Diana.Presented in the form of a trial, this book lays out the unsettling evidence that the Royal establishment and British Intelligence (with support from the C.I.A.) colluded in the death of Princess Diana. The Day Diana Died by Christopher Anderson A year after Princess Dianas tragic death in 1997, shocking revelations about her passing have surfaced via eyewitness testimony. From the nurse who covered her naked, lifeless body and who answered the queens immediate query of where are the jewels? to the off-duty paramedic who held Dianas head in his hands,  The Day Diana Died  leaves no sacred rock unturned. The Murders of Tupac and Biggie Murder Rap: the Untold Story of the Biggie Smalls Tupac Shakur Murder Investigations by the Detective Who Solved Both Cases by Greg Kading Two of the most notorious unsolved cases in the annals of American crime, the murders of Tupac Shakur and Biggie Smalls have been the subject of exhaustive investigations, relentless speculation and a tangled web of rampant rumors, crackpot conspiracies and dark secrets. Now, for the first time, the truth behind these sensational cases is laid bare in Murder Rap, a raw and riveting account of how a dedicated and driven police detective spearheaded the task force that finally exposed the shocking facts behind the deaths of these two rap music icons. LAbyrinth: A Detective Investigates the Murders of Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G., the Implication of Death Row Records Suge Knight, the the Origins of the Los Angeles Police Scandal by Randall Sullivan Acclaimed journalist Randall Sullivan follows Russell Poole, a highly decorated LAPD detective who in 1997 was called to investigate a controversial cop-on-cop shooting, eventually to discover that the officer killed was tied to Marion “Suge” Knight’s notorious gangsta rap label, Death Row Records. During his investigation, Poole came to realize that a growing cadre of black officers were allied not only with Death Row, but with the murderous Bloods street gang. And incredibly, Poole began to uncover evidence that at least some of these “gangsta cops” may have been involved in the murders of rap superstars Notorious B.I.G. and Tupac Shakur. Once Upon a Time in Compton by Tim Brennan and Robert ladd For twenty years, gang unit detectives Tim Brennan and Robert Ladd patrolled the streets of Compton. They witnessed the birth and rise of gangsta rap with acts they knew personally, such as N.W.A and D.J. Quik; dealt firsthand with the chaos of the L.A. riots, its aftermath, and the gang truce that followed; were involved in the investigations of the murders of hip-hop stars Tupac Shakur and The Notorious B.I.G., and were major players in an all-out tug-of-war with City Hall that ultimately resulted in the permanent shut-down of the Compton Police Department. Are there any other fascinating scandals of the 90s that youd love to read about? Sign up for True Story to receive nonfiction news, new releases, and must-read forthcoming titles. 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Thursday, May 21, 2020

Methods And Materials Primer Design And Cloning - 768 Words

Methods and Materials: Primer Design and Cloning: To explore regions of the Drosophila genome that weren’t categorized by Stark lab fragments, we used a molecular approach to design novel candidate enhancers from the ChIP sequence peaks. This approach also allowed us to create narrower fragments (approximately 1000 bp), focusing on enhancer activity and reducing the chance of background activity. Fragments containing in vivo Bcd and Otd binding signals were selected by searching between 500 bp upstream to 500 bp downstream of the primary binding peaks from ChIP sequence data (Datta, Unpublished) for Bcd Early (BcdE), Otd Late (OtdL), Otd Early (OtdE), or both BcdE and OtdL. We designed primers for the top candidate enhancers using Primer3, calculating for appropriate GC content and melting temperature (primers ordered through Integrated DNA Technologies, Iowa). Restriction enzyme sites (AscI at 5` and BglII at 3’) were incorporated into the primers. Standard PCR amplification (Chen et al.) was performed with wildtype f ly genomic DNA and candidate primers. Qiagenâ„ ¢ kits were used for PCR purification and gel extraction. Vector Construction and Transgenesis: Reporter gene construction was conducted to obtain flies that contained the candidate enhancers. Reporter genes were constructed using the piB-HC-lacZ vector (Chen et al, 2012). The piB-HC-lacZ vector contains a 4.0 kb HindIII-SphI fragment, including an eve basal promotor, the lacZ-coding region, and the 3’ UTR from theShow MoreRelatedPolymerase Chain Reaction Essay1003 Words   |  5 PagesOne may view cloning as copying a living thing and producing multiple copies. People may think of cloning rabbits, sheep or humans. In the field of molecular biology, however cloning is viewed at a genetic molecular level, where a piece of DNA is copied on a large-scale by genetically copying tens to hundreds of thousands of identical DNA fragments. 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Since this mechanism is known to produce dark mice in the lab, MC1R and agouti are the first two genes studied here, in the hope that one of these two genes will have changed in the dark mice to produce the dark coat. Materials and Methods For this experiment, live mice were obtained from the Pedro Armendaris lava flow in New Mexico, and the Pinacate lava flow in Arizona. Mice were also live trapped at Avra Valley and Portal. These four sites gave a sample of 70 miceRead MoreCystic Fibrosis : A Disease That Causes Problems Within The Lungs And Digestive Systems Essay2901 Words   |  12 Pagescan undergo human manipulations such as Selective Breeding and Gene Therapy. Introduction to Gene Manipulation Genetic manipulation refers to any method used to manipulate genetic material. Genetic transfer is when genes are transferred from one organism to another, and human manipulation of genetic transfer is where humans manipulate genetic material through genetic transfer to benefit organisms. E.g. Preventing diseases being genetically inherited, improving quality of plants, and selecting preferredRead MoreCloud Computing Security67046 Words   |  269 Pagesmultiple areas of cloud security. Deliverables now in use from the TCI Architecture to the GRC Stack were inspired by previous versions of the guidance, and it is our hope that this version will be no different. The guidance serves as a high level primer for chief executives, consumers, and implementers wishing to adopt cloud services as an alternative or supplement to traditional infrastructure. However, the guidance is designed with innovation in mind. Those with an entrepreneurial mindset should

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Einstein - 1250 Words

Psychological Development of Albert Einstein Erica Hopkins PSY 300 Psychological Development of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was one of the most intelligent, driven and moral minds of the 20th century. His early preparation in education and wonder greatly contributed to his eventual success and scientific advancements for the world. Einstein had a great support system around him at all times it seems. He was born on March 14, 1879 as the first child to Hermann and Pauline Einstein in Ulm Germany. (Krakow, 2004). His father was a business owner and gave Einstein a head start in mechanics and technology. (Krakow, 2004). Einstein had a younger sister born 2 years after him which contributed to his family support system. (Krakow,†¦show more content†¦When he was 12 years old studied with a Rabbi in order to prepare for his Bar-Mizwa yet did not attend his own celebration as he felt that he was more of an independent thinker at that point. Einstein had a few moral flaws. He had a few affairs, his marriage ended in divorce and he ended up marrying his cousin (Isaacson, 2007). After the birth of his grandchild, he developed more of a pacifist agenda. Possibly related to some environmental need to create a safe world for his offspring. His fun and peaceful personality was shaped by his social support system, m oral upbringing and cognitive abilities. Einstein was a unique personality for sure. I applied the five-factor model to examine his personality traits. It seems as though Einstein was high on the openness traits as he seemed like an intellectual who took action in his life. He was able to think of ideas that were completely new to society. He was a violinist from the age of five when his mother began his violin lessons (Isaacson, 2007). The violin is an artistic interest. 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Albert Einstein was the first child born to Hermann and Pauline Einstein, Jewish, middle-class Germans, on March 14, 1879 at Ulm, in Wurttemberg, Germany. Alberts sister, Maria, was born in November of 1881. They remained close throughout their lives.Einstein and sister 1 The Einstein family moved to Munich in 1880 to start their own business. Albert began his secondary schooling at Luitpold-GymnasiumRead MoreAlbert Einstein Essay1119 Words   |  5 PagesAlbert Einstein Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), was one of the greatest scientists of all time. He is best known for his theory of relativity, which he first advanced when he was only 26. He also made many other contributions to science. Einsteins relativity theory revolutionized scientific thought with new conceptions of time, space, mass, motion, and gravitation. He treated matter and energy as exchangeable, not distinct. 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Athens Under Solon Free Essays

string(167) " limit was set to his powers and every function of the state was committed to his charge, the magistracies, the public assemblies, the courts of law and the Councils\." When the city of Athens stood on the brink of revolution, the citizens of Athens looked upon Solon and gave him the task of creating new laws for them because of troubles that had been plaguing them for a long time. â€Å" They saw that he more than anyone else in city, stood apart from the injustices of the time and was involved neither in the extortions of the rich nor the privations of the poor† (Plutarch 55, Par 1). In this paper I will be writing of changes that took effect under Solon and whether those changes resolved the conflicts that brought Athens on the brink of revolution. We will write a custom essay sample on Athens Under Solon or any similar topic only for you Order Now First, I will be writing about the conflict over land ownership and slavery between aristocrats and common people, who appointed Solon as reconciler and archon and whether his new laws resolved those conflicts. Secondly, I will be writing of conflict over power between aristocrats and aristocrats, feuds that used to run between families and would not get resolved until there was no one left to take revenge on and how Solon’s new laws changed that. And another laws of Solon’s that he was highly appraised for to make an Athens better place under him such as laws on Dowry, Inheritance, and Wills. Thirdly, I will be writing of political laws that took places under Solon’s era and how he secured those laws against alteration for a hundred years that gave powers to common people in Athens. The Two sources I will be using to write this paper are The Athenian Constitution (The document given in class by Prof. Trumbach) and Plutarch: The Rise and fall of Athens (Textbook assigned for class). Aristocrats vs. Peasants Before I write about the conflict between the aristocrats and the common people, you must know the geographical system of Athens and the people who worked on those lands and how that contributed to the conflict. The city of Athens was divided into as many parties as there were geographical features in its territory. First there were aristocrats, people who lived in plain, who supported an oligarchy government and had the best and most fertile land (The Athenian Constitution 2). The party of the hill (Peasants with land on the hill) supported an extreme democracy so the new government can redistribute the land and they can have some of the fertile land which was all owned by aristocrats. Their land was so unfertile that sometimes they had to eat their own seed to survive due to bad harvest and borrow seeds from aristocrats and pledge their own freedom. When they were unable to pay back their debt, they were seized by their creditors and being enslaved at home or were sold to foreigners aboard. Many parents were even forced to sell their own children because there was no law to prevent that from happening (The Athenian Constitution 2). Then there were sharecroppers (Thetes) who supported a mixed form of government. These were the peasants who had no lands of their own and rented a land from aristocrats. As a rent they would pay one sixth of their crop which left them with just enough crop to survive. Sharecroppers lived on very tight budget. They were always left over with just enough to survive year to year and had no social mobility whatsoever. They were born poor and died poor. The City stood at the brink of revolution and the poor people could not take any more harshness from their creditors† (Plutarch 54, Par 2). â€Å"At this point poor rose against notables, the strife was fierce but they held out against each other for very long time. Eventually tired from fighting both sides agreed to appoint Solon as reconciler and archon and entrusted the Athens to him† (The Athenian Constitution 2). â€Å"After gaining control, first measure Solon put into force, he discharged all the debts of common people whether it was public or private that they owed to aristocrats which the Athenians called the â€Å"Shaking-off of Burden†. He freed all enslaved and put in a law that in future nobody could accept the person of a debtor as a security† (The Athenian Constitution 3). Hill peasants were now free from slavery and debt but their problems were still not solved. They wanted Solon to redistribute the land which he did not do, but instead he made Olive oil the only product of Athens allowed to be exported. So if there was anything extra leftover from the farms of aristocrats, they had no choice but to give to starving poor and Hill peasants. If anyone were to export anything but oil be punished by archon or should pay fine to the public treasury† (Plutarch 66, Par 3). After making Attica a great and secure place to live, he realized that the city was filling up with people in a steady stream from everywhere in Greek; at the same time he realized that most of the country was still poor and unproductive, and people elsewhere are not in the habit of sending their goods to those who have nothing to offer in exchange. He therefore encouraged the sharecroppers to turn to the arts and crafts of manufacture and made a law that no son was obliged to support his father unless the father first taught the son a trade of some kind† (Plutarch 64, Par 2). At first, the changes Solon made did not please either party. The rich were angry because of being deprived of their securities and losing out on their property and the poor even more so, because Solon did not carry out a redistribution of the land as they had expected him to do† (Plutarch 58, Par 2). However, it was not long before they realized that what Solon had done was great and saw the advantages of his policy. Athenians were so happy that they went on to appoint Solon to reform the constitution and draw up a code of laws. No limit was set to his powers and every function of the state was committed to his charge, the magistracies, the public assemblies, the courts of law and the Councils. You read "Athens Under Solon" in category "Papers" He had authority to decide the property qualifications, the numbers and the times of meeting of each of these bodies and also to preserve or dissolve all existing institution as he thought fit. Aristocrats vs. Aristocrats After Solon became the authority figure and champion of people, he established a constitution and formed other laws to make Athens better place to live. Athens had long been troubled by the blood-feuds of aristocrat’s families that had been trying to gain political control of the city, which in Solon time were the families of Cylon and Megacles. Family of Cylon wanted to seize the control of Athens and Megacles’ family wanted to stop them. At the time of Solon this feud was at its height and the city was torn between them. So after Solon came to mediate between them and Megacles’ family was found guilty, he enacted a new law to protect common people. â€Å"He gave every citizen the privilege of going to law on behalf of any one whose rights was violated. For instance, if a man was assaulted or suffered violence or injury, anybody who had the ability and the desire to do so was entitled to bring a suit and prosecute the offender. In this way every citizens of Athens come close to each other and sympathize with one another’s wrong and became loyal to each other and not just to their friends and families† (Plutarch 60, Par 2). â€Å"Seeing that the city was always in a state of strife and some tyrant is always trying to take control of the city and some of the citizens through apathy accepted whatever might happen, Solon made a special law to deal with them. If when the city is torn by a feud and anyone should refuse to place his arms at the disposal of either side should be outlawed and have no share in the city† (The Athenian Constitution 4). â€Å"Solon was admired for another law that he made which deals with Will. Before Solon wills were not allowed and if someone who owns the property dies, the estate of the deceased was bound to remain within his family. However, Solon allowed any man who had no children to choose their heir, showing that he rated friendship above the ties of blood and free choice above necessity† (Plutarch 63, Par 3). In another law, Solon abolished dowries. The bride had to bring nothing but three changes of clothes and small necessity of small value to her new home. Solon object was that marriage is pure and it should not be seen as profit- making institution, two people should get married to gain each other’s love and affection not property† (Plutarch 62, Par 2). â€Å"Solon also for bade slaves to rub themselves with olive oil, to practice in the gym or to have a boy lover. He made this law so the young aristocrats’ boys hang out with people only in their class, with people who can teach them the aristocratic ways and educate them for future† (Plutarch 42, Par 2). â€Å"However, Solon’s law concerning women seem incongruous to some extent. For example, he made it illegal to kill any adulterer who was caught in the act. The offence of rape against a free woman was punished by a fine of no more than 100 drachmae. He also made it illegal for a man to sell his daughter or sister, unless he discovered that she was no longer a virgin showing he did not care much about women’s right† (Plutarch 65, Par 3). Political Structure â€Å"As soon Solon gained all the power in Athens, he abolished all the Draconian laws because of their harshness and the excessively heavy penalties they carried; the only exceptions he made were to the laws relating to homicide† (Plutarch 59, Par 2). â€Å"Solon wanted to leave all the offices of state in the hands of the rich, as he found them but at the same time he wanted to give the common people (Thetes) a share in other sector of government which they had never before possessed. So he took a census of each citizen’s property and divided them in four different Categories. Those who received an annual income of 500 measures were placed in the first class. People who owned horses and paid ‘horse tax’ or possessed an income of 300 measures were placed in the second class. The third class was People whose yearly income amounted to 200 measures. Rest of the citizen body was known as thetes, common people and peasants. Solon distributed major offices, such as the nine archons, the treasurer, and the sellers among first three classes according to the level of their assessment. People who were considered thetes were not entitled to hold office and their only political function consisted in sitting in the Assembly or on a Jury. First this new changes to the constitution appeared to be worth very little and nobody took much interest in it, but later on became extremely important, because the majority of the disputes were settled in front of a jury and that jury was now consist of 98% common people. Even in those cases which Solon placed under the jurisdiction of the magistrates, he then also allowed the right of appeal to the popular court. And if the popular court were unable to settle the case in accordance to law, cases then were to be handled by jury, so that in sense the jurors became the arbiters of the law. And because most of bodies in Athens that time were common people, they were the one to hold most position in jury† (Plutarch 60, Par 2). â€Å"Solon then established the council of the Areopagus, which was composed of men who had previously held the annual office of archon, as he was once before. He too became a member of Areopagus. He saw people were becoming restive and unruly because of their release from their debts. He then formed a second chamber consisting of 400 men, 100 being drawn from each of the four classes. Its functions were to deliberate public business in advance of the general assembly, and not to allow any matter to be brought before the Areopagus without its having been discussed. He charged the upper chamber with the task of exercising a general supervision and acting as guardian of the laws. His object here was that the state with its two councils should ride, as it were, at double anchor and should therefore be less exposed to the buffetings of party politics and better able to secure tranquility for the people† (Plutarch 61, Par 2). He also made another law that all his laws were to remain in force for a hundred years, and they were written on a axons, or wooden tablets which was covered with a wooden frame for generations to remember† (Plutarch 67, Par 2). In Conclusion, Solon is considered as the first lawmaker that set the ground for the creation of the democracy, the government system that made Athens powerful and granted the city fame for the centuries to come. The most democratic of Solon’s enactments were these three: the first, and greatest, the forbidding of loans on the person [i. . using oneself as security for a loan, foreclosure resulting in slavery]; the second, the possibility for anyone who wishes to sue over wrongdoings; and third, reform of the political structure of Athens which gave the power to common people to sit in the jury for the first time eve in the history of Greece. In his reform measures, he pleased neither the common people who wanted the land redistributed nor the landowners who wanted to keep all their property to themselves. Instead, he did what he thought was right for Athens. How to cite Athens Under Solon, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The evil of Mao Essay Example Essay Example

The evil of Mao Essay Example Paper The evil of Mao Essay Introduction Revolution, a program to wipe out supposed counter-revolutionary elements in Chinese society that lasted 10 years and was marked by violent class struggle, widespread destruction of cultural artifacts and unprecedented elevation of Mayo’s personality cult and which is officially regarded as a â€Å"severe setback† for the PRE. After all, Mao is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history. Mao is officially held in high regard in the People’s Republic of China as of today. Chairman Mao Is belonging to idealistic and Instrumental evil according to my research. Idealistic evil Is the saddest evil In my opinion. Idealistic evil Is the one who want to make things getting better; however, things never follow what he wishes. Idealistic evil can also be the one who make a wrong decision, but he or she think this is a right decision to other people, so he hurt others, but he think he is doing the right thing. Like the Roy F. Bandmaster writte n in the â€Å"Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty’, â€Å"it’s always the good men who do the most harm in the world. † Also Chairman Mao has made the Instrumental evil in his life. The evil of Mao Essay Body Paragraphs Instrumental evil is the way people want to fulfill their desires by hurting someone else. It is very common in our world, and nobody can get rid of it. After Chairman Mao established the New China, he wants to keep his power, so he caused many tragedies. Chairman Mao are belonging to these two evils, and Chairman Mao has some typical example of these two examples, and I will explain them In the following paragraphs. The first thing we realized that can present Chairman Mao Is being â€Å"evil† Is that he becomes too arrogant and does not care about other suggestion because he think he is right for everything. Everyone knows that Chairman Mao was one of the greatest men in Chinese history. He made the New China become independent, and he united all Chinese together. However, in another perspective, he became a god-like person to all Chinese that no one could say any negative things about him, and his every decision is correct because he did not make mistakes ever. Whatever he does, it must be right, and people should follow him and always praise him. No one can have different opinions, but if some tried, people would consider him or her as a betrayer which is the one like capitalism. Those enthusiasts will start attacking the betrayer because they are disloyalty to communism and Chairman Mao. At that time, People wrote a book called Words from Chairman Mao, which recorded Chairman Mayo’s â€Å"useful† words. Everyone must have It and memorized It. This book also had another name â€Å"Red Treasure Book,† Red means communism; treasure book which means how precious this book is. In this book, it is all about Chairman Mayo’s opinions and book became very popular and valuable. All people should have this book, and people should remember all contents in this book. Nowadays, it is more likely a textbook to new generation. We are forced to learn those words and do as what the words written in my political class. My uncle, who has exp erienced this period, and he told me they had to remember all words from this book, otherwise, they got hit by enthusiasts. Those people would believe they were not loyalty to Chairman Mao anymore. When they have an argument with someone, they will use the words from Red Treasure Book to debate. For example, If Chairman Mao has said in the book â€Å"Sun is risen from the west. Then people would or could not have doubts with it. Such ironic now, but it was how the debate worked during that period. For another example, many Chinese scholars, who have knowledge and well known in China, and hey know Chairman Mayo’s opinions or ideas are not correct, but they could not have the disagreement with Chairman Mao because if they did, those enthusiasts will watch them and seeking their problems for sending them into Jail or kill. However, some of them tried at that time, but some of them were killed, and their families got biases from others. Those nonsense behaviors make people becom e nonsense, and also make other smart people afraid of saying their ideas and opinions which can make the country better. In my concern, Chairman Mao becomes arrogant at that time, and he thinks that he is the one who represents the truth and the people. Chairman Mayo’s personality was quiet similar to the heroic or idealistic evil. As Roy F. Bandmaster written in the â€Å"Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty’, he describes that if someone believes that he or she is doing the right thing, then those who want to suggest him to stop are belong to evil (180). Like the author describes, Chairman Mao thinks that he is doing the right thing, and so other ideas which is not fit what he thought will be consider as a wrong thing, and it is the side of his evil. The second point of Chairman Mao is being evil is that he made many wrong or vile decisions. Chairman Mao is the president of the People’s Republic of China, and he is very ambitious, so he is trying to make China become super power in the world as United States and Soviet Union. At that time, Soviet Union and United States are very developed, but China is Just a new and undeveloped country which was suffered by many western countries and wars. The economy of China is terrible; most of people are not feed. As the founder and president of China, Chairman Mao wants to solve these issues, and he want China can overcome Soviet Union and United States. His ideas sounds very good, but he does not end it as he supposed at first. As we know, the economy of China was not as stable as United States, so it was very hard for him to make economy better than these countries. Because people want to satisfy him, they start to trick and bootblack him. They changed the real and cruel statistic to the fake ones, so the numbers will look good and beautiful. They made this task become more and more difficult, and it has lost its original purposes. Because of the nice fake static, Chairman Mao is being extre mely confident to himself. He makes hem to do what he said, and he is not searching for the reality but nice numbers. Many leaders of those industries will lie to the government that they can make good products, so the government will pump money into their companies because they said they can assist the government to make the economy to become better. Care about the labors. They do not all them to have free time, but if someone asked for rest or lifting salary, they will say you should not ask question like that, and you are help people to build a better communism society, so this sacrifice is necessary. What could they say about that? Noting. Those workers become very weak, and they cannot get enough money to buy enough food to feed their family. At that time, many people died because of starvation. In addition, many people switch their work from agriculture to industry, so the agriculture becomes worse and worse which assist the starvation issues. It does not make the economy bett er than United States and Soviet Union, but it make it worse than before. Chairman Mao does not care about the labors at that time, and all he wants is win the competition with Soviet Union and United States. It hurts other innocent people, so in my mind, he makes â€Å"evil† decisions. This type evil belongs to the material evil and idealistic evil because he wants things better, but he forgets the correction of methods he uses. The third point of Chairman Mao is being evil is that because of his decision, many people die. He wants China get rid of the old impact from the feudal society, so he starts a very famous revolution called â€Å"Culture Revolution of China†. I think it is well known in the globe. When people are discussing about Chairman Mao, they will definitely talk about the Culture Revolution of China. By the way, you may wonder what Culture Revolution is. It is a revolution that emphasizes the purity of Communist ideology and to reformat the direction fr om the capitalist restoration. At first, the Culture Revolution is based on good intentions. This revolution is to break the four old of Chinese which are the old minds, the old culture, the old customs, and the old habits. Chairman Mao wants Chinese to become smart, advanced, and modern. That is why the revolution starts. However, though it is a good start, it ends in a bad way after all. He gathered four people, who are Kiang King, Chem. Body, Line Bio, and Gang Sheen, together to assist him to push through the revolution. The revolution lasts for ten Yeats, and many people called it a ten year disaster. He does not allow people to have the knowledge about capitalism because he thinks that if they know capitalism, they will start to against his authority, and also he is afraid that some scholars will start to disagree with him, so he cannot maintain his power. Like Roy F. Bandmaster write in â€Å"Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty’ that â€Å"violence is used to gai n or maintain power† (120). He does not like any doubts to his decision because he want to keep his power. At that time, people who are teachers, scholars, professors, and educators are all the targets. People who have the knowledge is the lowest class, and people can hit them when they make some nonsense reasons such as he is a capitalism. More ironically, those scholars could not escape to other countries because Chairman Mao does not want them to develop other countries, so China was totally blocked at that period. Students can hit and torture his or her teacher in front of everyone. It is cruel, and Chairman Mao is trying to destroy the knowledgeable class. He has many fans that are called â€Å"Red Guards. They are always loyal to Chairman Mao, and they will be crazy when they catch or torture others. If someone has negative opinion or comment towards Chairman Mao, they will hit and torture even though he or she is their parents. People cannot speak or think freely. If s omeone says something negative accidentally, they are possibly facing death. Many Mao also uses this revolution to kill those people who helped him to establish the New China together because he is afraid that they will threat his authority. However, scholars are not the only targets to the Red Guards, but also the Artists. There is a famous singer called Ghana Gorgon, his voice is excellent, and it can make people feel comfortable and relax. However, he was forbid to perform in China because Chairman Mao thinks his voice will make people become weaker especially males. Chairman Mao is belonging to idealistic and instrumental evil according to my research. Idealistic evil is the saddest evil in my opinion. Idealistic evil is the one who Idealistic evil can also be the one who make a wrong decision, but he or she think this two examples, and I will explain them in the following paragraphs. We will write a custom essay sample on The evil of Mao Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The evil of Mao Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The evil of Mao Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer